• Lauren Black

    Design a Successful Preclinical Program for Cellular Therapeutics

    Introduction Because cell therapies are mostly human in origin, they are challenging to study in animals (due to tissue rejection). But, these studies are required before starting human trials. Cells are also unlike chemically identical molecules in a standard drug product. That is, they are always a mixture and are always changing in nature, so ...
  • Mark Vézina

    Non-Ocular Compounds May Call for Ocular Endpoints

    While not necessary for most systemic preclinical toxicology studies, the addition of supplemental specialized ocular endpoints may be warranted if a compound belongs to a class known for potential ocular side effects. Supplemental endpoints may also be warranted in the early screening phase in order to weed out the most problematic compounds. The key is to ...
  • John Dubczak

    Adventures of Protecting the American Horseshoe Crab

    In drug development, all small molecules, biologics, medical devices and raw materials must be tested and proven free of endotoxins. Enter the American horseshoe crab.
  • Christina Winnicker

    Mice No Longer Out in the Cold

    Give a child a Rubik’s Cube and motor and math skills develop. Give the same Rubik’s Cube to a rat, and well…nothing happens. It’s totally irrelevant to their development. This is the idea behind behaviorally relevant enrichment.
  • Susan Y. Smith

    The Skeleton: A Regulator of Energy Metabolism?

    During the evolution of man, we were subject to famine and feasting largely driven by the seasons and changing environmental conditions. When food was plentiful, metabolism functioned one way, and when man hit the hard times of famine, metabolism switched gears. It is this ability to accommodate and adjust to varying environmental conditions that has ...